A, left external carotid angiogram, anteriorposterior view, showing shunt flow into the left cavernous sinus. Occasional complications such as urethrocavernous fistula and gangrene of the penis have been reported urology l june 1980 l volume xv, number 6 in the literature. A carotidcavernous fistula is a vascular disorder in the cavernous sinus region of the skull. A carotidcavernous fistula is an abnormal communication between a carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Fistula carotido cavernosa postraumatica 270 youtube. Carotidcavernous fistula and carotid artery aneurysm sonoworld. A carotid cavernous sinus fistula is an abnormal connection that forms between a carotid artery in your neck and the network of veins at the back of your eye.
The suspected diagnosis of a direct carotidcavernous fistula ccf was confirmed by digital substraction arteriography. Carotid cavernous sinus fistulas ccfs are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. Liang w, xiaofeng y, weiguo l, wusi q, gang s, xuesheng z. Type a ccfs are highflow direct shunts between the ica and the cavernous sinus fig. These fistulae can occur because of trauma, if there is an aneursym in the carotid that breaks and causes the communication, or they can happen. Carotid cavernous sinus fistula is an abnormal communication between the internal or external carotid arteries and the cavernous sinus. If detected early, the condition can be easily treated with an endoscopic procedure, but if left untreated it can eventually lead to blindness. Urethrocavernocutaneous fistula with distal urethral. The main symptom is diplopia, caused by compression injury of the oculomotor nerves. Exophthalmos secondary to a carotid cavernous fistula. Meaning of carotid cavernous sinus fistula medical term. Endovascular treatment strategy for direct carotid cavernous fistulas resulting from rupture of intracavernous carotid aneurysms.
Carotidcavernous sinus fistula definition of carotid. Direct ccfs often result from blunt or penetrating trauma that results in a tear in the cavernous segment of the ica, with resulting rapid arteriovenous shunting into the cavernous sinus 8, 10, 14. There are a number of causes, however, aneurysm rupture and trauma are by far the most common. Carotid cavernous fistula may result from the down fracture of the maxilla or the pterygoid osteotomy, thus injuring the internal carotid artery. Cavernouscarotid fistula definition of cavernouscarotid. Carotid cavernous fistula patients typically present with proptosis, elevated intraocular pressure, prominent tortuous conjunctival vessels, and sometimes headache.
Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. The potentially sightrobbing vascular abnormality known as the carotid cavernous sinus fistula ccf can masquerade as conjunctivitis or other common ocular conditions, which diminishes the chance for a speedy diagnosis. The development of carotidcavernous fistulas ccfs during surgical recanalization of chronic internal carotid artery occlusion icao may be. Anomalous communication between the internal carotid artery ica or its branches andor branches of the external carotid artery eca with the cavernous sinus causes an abrupt change in the direction and distribution of brain and orbital blood flow an uncommon condition of varying severity. In most instances, endovascular treatment is preferred. Ruptured cavernous sinus aneurysms causing carotid cavernous. Carotidcavernous fistula may result from the down fracture of the maxilla or the pterygoid osteotomy, thus injuring the internal carotid artery. These lesions may be classified based on the following. The difference in the blood pressure between the arteries and the veins behind the eye leads to a buildup of blood in a persons eye.
Drainage is toward the ips and the contralateral ips through the intercavernous sinus. Treatment of carotidcavernous fistula by muscle embolization. Pdf carotid cavernous fistula ccf is an abnormal communication between. Diagnosis and management of carotid cavernous fistulas. Direct carotid cavernous fistulas are highflow shunts with a direct connection between the internal carotid artery and. With chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, and retroorbital pain, the auscultation of orbital bruit can make a correct and prompt diagnosis in the patient with carotid cavernous sinus fistula. This article is from march 2008 and may contain outdated material.
The etiology of cs syndrome is neoplasm, aneurysm, thrombosis, carotidcavernous fistula, pituitary apoplexy, granulomatous inflammation, and infection 4, 8. Carotidcavernous fistula knowledge for medical students. May 24, 2019 carotid cavernous sinus fistula is an abnormal communication between the internal or external carotid arteries and the cavernous sinus. Carotidcavernous sinus fistula is an abnormal communication between the internal or external carotid arteries and the cavernous sinus. A ccf can be due to a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, or a. May 22, 2015 sindrome del piramidal o falsa ciatica. Traumatic carotid cavernous fistula accompanying basilar skull fracture. Indirect fistulas require either transarterial occlusion of feeding arterial branches andor transvenous occlusion of the cavernous sinus 6. This separates the blood flow of the carotid arteries from that of the veins. The diagnosis was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography in all four instances. Posttraumatic carotidcavernous fistulas are due to a tear in the wall of the cavernous carotid artery. A carotidcavernous sinus fistula is an abnormal connection that forms between a carotid artery in your neck and the network of veins at the back of your eye. Treating a carotid cavernous fistula with embolization involves placing small platinum coils where the abnormal connection is. A practical guide 1st edition pdf with you, here are a few important details regarding this book which you might be interested.
Virtually all disturbances of the cavernous sinus are manifested first and foremost by its prominent front door neighbour the orbit and hence described under such titles. Con tratamiento endovascular presento buena evolucion. A rare but treatable cause of rapidly progressive vision loss. Looking for online definition of carotid cavernous sinus fistula in the medical dictionary. A carotid cavernous fistula is an abnormal communication between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. Carotidcavernous fistula how is carotidcavernous fistula abbreviated. Ruptured cavernous sinus aneurysms causing carotid.
Highflow direct ccfs usually are traumatic or are caused by rupture of a cavernous aneurysm into the sinus, but a small percentage can be spontaneous. Carotidcavernous fistulas ccfs are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus that occur mainly in elderly. These lesions are most commonly found in young males, presumably due to the increased prevalence of head trauma in this population 15. Spontaneous resolution of posttraumatic direct carotid. May, 20 despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the ct angiographic appearance of carotid cavernous fistulas. Ccfs are classified into two main types based on their pathophysiology, direct type a and indirect type bd 1, 2, as shown in figure 1. Type b ccfs are dural shunts between meningeal branches of the cavernous ica arising from the meningohypophyseal or ilt trunks and the cavernous sinus fig. In large series of veds patients carotidcavernous fistulas are one of the most common. Ccfs are classified using the barrow classification. At, we take user experience very seriously and thus always strive to improve. Based on this classification, our case belongs to type a ii.
Treatment of carotidcavernous fistula by muscle embolization alone the brooks method. If detected early, the condition can be easily treated with an endoscopic procedure, but if left untreated it can. Endovascular techniques for treatment of carotidcavernous fistula. Endovascular management of a ruptured cavernous carotid artery aneurysm associated with a carotid cavernous fistula with an intracranial selfexpanding microstent and hydrogelcoated coil embolization. Imaging diagnosis of dural and direct cavernous carotid fistulae.
Development of a urethrocavernocutaneous fistula with distal urethral stricture and resultant aberrant voiding into the corpora cavernosa, hitherto unreported, is a rare variation. Carotid stenosis, carotidcavernous fistula, minimal symptom, covered stent. Signs and symptoms are related to the compression of structures within the cavernous sinus, including the. A case of rightsided direct carotid cavernous fistula. Because of direct shunting of arterial blood into the cavernous sinus and subsequently into the. The fistula was successfully treated angiographically. A caroticocavernous fistula ccf may be due to either a direct connection between the cavernous ica and the cavernous sinus and present acutely, or due to an indirect connection via small branches of the ica, eca, or as in this case both.
An anatomicalangiographic classification for carotidcavernous sinus fistulas is introduced and a series of. Caroticocavernous fistula radiology reference article. Any information contained in this pdf file is automatically generated from digital material. Pdf carotid cavernous fistulae are an uncommon disease. Carotidcavernous fistula an overview sciencedirect topics. Carotidcavernous fistulas in journal of neurosurgery. Central retinal artery occlusion associated with traumatic. If invasive intervention is not warranted, patients may use techniques of occlusion, such as external manual carotid compression, to promote. Closure of carotid cavernous sinus fistulae by external compression of the carotid artery and jugular vein.
Barrow classification of caroticocavernous fistulae. Occasionally, treatment of indirect ccfs with conventional endovascular approach through large veins or. It therefore appears of importance to report here a case of fistula between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus in which carotid embolization alone. The fistula leads to a highpressure inflow of arterial blood into the venous sinuses, resulting in compression and damage to adjacent structures. Anomalous communication between the internal carotid artery ica or its branches andor branches of the external carotid artery eca with the cavernous sinus causes an abrupt change in the direction and distribution of brain and orbital blood. Treatment of carotidcavernous fistula by muscle embolization alone. As arterial blood under high pressure enters the cavernous sinus, the normal venous return to the cavernous sinus is impeded and this causes engorgement of the. We can be reasonably certain that the classical syndrome resulting from the carotid cavernous fistula ccf was noticed long before first described by bartholow 4.
Treatment of carotid cavernous fistulas springerlink. Carotidcavernous fistula carotidcavernous fistulae are a specific kind of dural fistula that involves the carotid artery or its branches and a large vein cavernous sinus behind the eye. A direct fistula is due to direct communication between the intracavernous internal carotid artery and the surrounding cavernous sinus. Conservative management, consisting of external manual compression of the ipsilateral cervical carotid artery several times a day for 46 weeks, may be effective.
As a result, the blood can drain properly from the eyes. B, left internal carotid angiogram, lateral view, showing a dural arteriovenous fistula at the posterior cavernous sinus. Carotidcavernous sinus fistula endovascular procedures exophthalmos orbital cellulitis. Now before that we move on to sharing the free pdf download of imaging of cerebrovascular disease. Carotid cavernous fistula is an abnormal arteriovenous communication between the carotid artery or its branches and the cavernous sinus. A carotidcavernous fistula ccf is a pathologic shunt between the carotid artery and the venous cavernous sinus. Aneurysms of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery usually become symptomatic by mass effect on the adjacent cranial nerves, causing ophthalmoplegia and, sometimes, decreased vision or trigeminal neuralgia. A carotidcavernous fistula results from an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems within the cavernous sinus in the skull. A carotidcavernous fistula ccf is an abnormal communication between.
Recent advances in endovascular techniques have resulted in several therapeutic modalities becoming available and the endovascular approach has evolved as the primary treatment option for the management of ccfs. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. Jun 12, 2010 fistulas carotido cavernosa diagnostico tac. Carotid cavernous fistulas ccfs are a rare but potentially devastating cause of orbital symptoms, visual loss, and periocular disfigurement. A carotid cavernous fistula ccf is an abnormal passage between the venous cavernous sinus and the internal carotid artery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the ct angiographic appearance of carotidcavernous fistulas.
Barrow caroticocavernous fistula classification divides caroticocavernous fistulas into direct type a or indirect types bd. Carotid cavernous sinus fistula and aneurysmal rupture associated with fibromuscular dysplasia. Endovascular treatment of carotid cavernous sinus fistula. Carotidcavernous fistulas ccfs are vascular shunts allowing blood to flow from the carotid artery into the cavernous sinus. As arterial blood under high pressure enters the cavernous sinus, the normal venous return to the cavernous sinus is impeded and this causes engorgement of the draining veins, manifesting most dramatically as a. Angiographic evaluation and treatment for head and neck vascular. Classification and treatment of spontaneous carotid cavernous. Four cases in which the diagnosis of carotid cavernous fistula was made by using ct angiography are illustrated. Four cases in which the diagnosis of carotidcavernous fistula was made by using ct angiography are illustrated.
Ojo izquierdo con inyeccion conjuntival y desviacion en abduccion izquierda. Dissectionrelated carotidcavernous fistula ccf following surgical. A carotid cavernous fistula is an abnormal communication between a carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. If the inline pdf is not rendering correctly, you can download the pdf file here. Carotid cavernous fistulas have been a wellestablished. A carotid cavernous fistula results from an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems within the cavernous sinus in the skull. Ccfs can be classified by anatomy direct or dural, etiology traumatic or sponta. To describe the etiology and clinical presentaton of carotidcavernous fistulas.344 1360 1076 1022 1012 266 1330 1312 1536 764 192 1414 1396 134 1263 265 1178 807 855 1453 215 619 1091 336 569 906 770 410 109 910 1242 1045 588 334 283 798 632 812 1400 854 1179 1112 1254 573 178 1301